Michael Pace-Sigge (University of Eastern Finland)
The linguistic representation of gender in Spanish based news on the web
Héctor Castro and Ignacio Ródriguez (Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro)
Pierce (2008) examined the collocational behavior of MAN and WOMAN as subject, object, and the attributive adjectives associated to these lemmas. The findings suggest important asymmetries in the way men and women are represented in relation to power and deviance. Pierce found that in the representation of men, emphasis is placed on strength and potency; women, on the other hand, were represented as the recipients of the exercise of power by others, especially in relation to sexual violence (e.g., rape, gag and violate, limitations (e.g., disempower, limit and marginalize).
This study, inspired by Pearce (2008), uses corpus methodology to investigative the collocating adjectives of the lemmas MAN and WOMAN in a 7,200 million-word corpus in Spanish based on news on the web (NOW) (Davies, 2014). A mutual information (MI) statistical measure was used to analyze the data as to find not the frequency of the collocations but the significance of the associations of the lemmas with the collocates. Approximately, 2,900 collocations were obtained with statistical significance (MI above 3). By examining the collocations of these lemmas, first, we seek to shed light on the gender ideologies that are transmitted in the press, and second, to attempt to better comprehend gender as a social construct.
In a first analysis, the collocational pattern revealed that WOMAN collocates with adjectives related to ethnicity, age, sexualization, and physical appearance whereas MAN collocates with adjectives related to mental acuteness and physical power. Furthermore, the data also demonstrated differences between the collocations between singular and plural; for instance, adjectives such as “aguerrida”, “indómita”, and “enérgica” collocate with woman, but such adjectives do not appear with women.
In a second analysis, we employed a supersense taxonomy for adjectives (Tsvetkov et al, 2014); categories such as perception, temporal, mind, body, feeling, mind and behavior among others were considered in this classification process. The analysis carried with a selection of the collocations showed, for instance, that MAN collocates more often that WOMAN with adjectives related to behavior. In this analysis, we identified, for instance, that adjectives such as “polígamo”, “infiel”, and “mujeriego” collocate with MAN; however, in regards to WOMAN, the collocates in this semantic field are “adúltera” and “promiscua” which imply a lack of both principles and self-control.
By examining to what extend certain adjectives are associated with MAN and WOMAN, we are contributing to unveil the perceptions and/or expectations about gender, sexuality, and power that society impose on men and women.
Serie: CILC2021: Discurso, análisis literario y corpus / Discourse, literary analysis and corpora (+información)
Ekaterina Troshchenkova, Olga Blinova (Saint Petersburg State University -SPBU-)
Safa Atia (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid)
Cassandra Sian Tully (Universidad de Extremadura)
Zihuan Zhong (Queen Mary University of London)
Shuyi Sun and Peter Crosthwaite (University of Queensland)
Elena Mattei (University of Verona)
Jiang Niu and Yue Jiang (Xi'an Jiaotong University)
Isabel García Martínez (Universitat de Valencia)
Mengna Liu (Guangdong University of Foreign Studies)
Gang Yao (Universidad de Murcia) y María Luisa Carrió Pastor (Universidad Politécnica de Valencia)
‘Yeah, No’ in Irish English fiction: Pragmatic functions and indexicality of a ‘new’ pragmatic (...)
Ana Maria Terrazas-Calero (University of Limerick)
Ana Ruth Sánchez Barrera and Ignacio Rodríguez Sánchez (Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro)
Fang Wang (University of Surrey)
Cao Wei, Yuanyuan Zhao and Zhao Yuanyuan (Universidad de Huelva)
Hakan Cangır (Ankara University) and Taner Can (TED University)
Álvaro Ramos (Universidad de Granada)
Andrés Ortega (Università degli studi di Bergamo)